crop physiology,
Crop Physiology

The higher vascular plants that cover the land areas of the earth and inhabit the seas have a crucial role in mankind’s existence and survival. They furnish us with food. They provide our livestock with forage, They supply the air we breathe with oxygen. From them, we obtain fibers for clothing, wood for shelter and furnishings, and medicines that we use to alleviate our ailments. Not only mankind’s primary biological needs but also many of the items used in everyday life are obtained from higher vascular plants. The term higher vascular plants refer to those plants that produce seeds, Included among the items obtained are paper; rubber; species; non-alcoholic beverages, such as tea, cocoa, and coffee; and alcoholic beverages, such as wine, beer, whiskey, gin, and vodka. Moreover, higher vascular plants minister to the aesthetic needs of humans by beautifying our physical environment. In fact, these plants are the most prominent feature of the natural green landscape. The fact that we are completely and absolutely dependent on higher vascular plants for the necessities of life makes it imperative that we gain as thorough knowledge as possible of the science of plant physiology Moreover, our insatiable curiosity about the world in which we live provides ample justification for studying plant physiology. 

 “Crop physiology is the science which deals with the life processes of crop plants or the functions of cells, tissues, organs or the plant as a whole”.
 According to this definition of life process or physiological, process, the physical process of diffusion, water conduction, solute adsorption, absorption, or loss or transport of radiant energy and other internal physical changes with the environment would be considered as a physiological process. Similarly all metabolic changes like those concerned in respiration, photosynthesis, synthesis of lipids, amino acids, proteins, etc. When they occur within the cell of an organism would be considered as a physiological process. Many physiological processes such as growth and photosynthetic involve both physical and chemical changes. According to the definition: “Life process or physiological process may be defined, as any chemical or physical changes occurring within a cell or organism and any exchange of substances between the cell or organism and its environments”.


scope of crop physiology,
Scope of Crop Physiology

 It is common knowledge that seeds, it kept under dry condition, as during storage, remain almost unchanged even after several years. When, however, a seed is sown under suitable conditions, it undergoes a series of remarkable changes. It swells up by absorbing water, strikes roots into the soil, and develops into a delicate seedling. Later on, it grows into a mature plant, the volume, and weight of which are infinitely greater than those of the parent seed. After a certain period of vegetative existence which varies with different plants and in proper season of the year the flowers appear which endure for sometimes and then fade away, their place being taken by the developing fruit in which the seed ripens. In all these changes, from the seed to the fruiting stage, a large number of diverse and complex processes are involved. 
                   The more important of these are absorption of water and minerals from the soil; the unfolding of the embryo; the transport of water and minerals from the underground parts to the aerial ones; the making of food material resulting in an increase in the bulk of the plant’s body, the transport, utilization, and storage of this food; the growth of the various parts of the plant, and finally the process involved in the productions and ripening of the seeds. All these processes and many others that go on within the plant are the manifestations of what we call life. And it is an object of plant physiology to study and analyze all the life processes of the plants, to study the effects of various factors upon these life processes and if possible, to solve the nature of life itself. This involves a study of functions of the various plant organs and tissues. 
The various plant organs and the tissues that comprise them have specific structure and organization and they also perform a specific function. Thus, the root is primarily concerned with the fixing of the plant in the substratum and the absorption of water and dissolved minerals; the leaves with the synthesis of organic food; and the stem with the displaying of leaves to sunlight and the conduction of water and nutrient. Again, we find that tissues are reflect in the difference in their form and structure. In other words, the structure of an organ is correlated with the function that it performs, and conversely, the specific task to be performed by an organ determined the pattern of its structure. 
               For a proper understanding of the various vital activities of the plant, therefore, a knowledge of plant structure is a necessary prerequisite. Thus, the root is so constructed as to enable it to perform the function of fixation and absorption effectively; similar the structure of the leaf lamina and the distribution of tissues in it is so arranged that the leaf can perform the function of food making most efficiently. To be a one must also be a morphologist. 

Practical aspects of crop physiology,
Practical aspects of crop physiology

Quite apart from the considerable theoretical significance of crop physiology in helping us understand the world in which we live, knowledge of crop physiology is essential to all fields of applied botany-agronomy, floriculture, forestry, horticulture, plant breeding, plant pathology, etc. All these applied sciences depend on plant physiology for information about how plants grow and develop. Plant physiology will probably also assume an increasingly important role in agriculture research programs. As the world population increases, mankind faces enormously complex problems. Their solutions will require input from many sources. One of the primary tasks of the future will be to increase food, forage, fiber, and wood production substantially throughout the world. Future agricultural research programs will continue, as in the present, to have as their major goals the production of new and better varieties and strains of crop plants; the improvement of plant protection against insect disease and weeds; the control of soil fertility, and an increase in mechanization efficiency. But in addition, there will be a sharp intensification of

demands on plant physiologists not only to supply basic information regarding how plants grow and develop but also to undertake research programs designed specifically to increase yields of plant products. 
                  Many aspects of applied agriculture can benefit from more intensive research in plant physiology. Only a few examples will be mentioned here. The efficiency of photosynthetic conversion of solar radiation in the production of food crops acceptable to human diets can be increased by one or more of several means, including a decrease in the rate of photo-respiration and breeding genetic changes in plants with the goal of increased display of leaves so as to create better light capturing systems. Improved biological nitrogen fixation will offset the enormously expensive chemical synthesis of commercial nitrogen fertilizers. Techniques of tissue culture and cell fusion developed by plant physiologists during the past several years may be used to breed desirable strains of crop plants. The mean of avoiding or reducing environmental stresses, such as drought, frost, and pests can be developed. 
                           Crop yields can be increased by learning how and when the application of plant growth regulators to plants in most effective. Now useless weeds and jungle plants can be converted to high quality under the addition of fats and proteins produced through large scare culture of algae and yeast cells. Greater efficiency of nutrient uptake from soils can be realized by obtaining superior strains of micro-organisms for the formation of mycorrhizal symbiosis with roots. These and other potential applications of research plant physiology to the solution of practical problems in agronomy, forestry, horticulture, etc. give an added dimension to the already recognized importance of research in basic plant physiology.

Importance of crop physiology,
Importance of crop physiology
Green crop plants supply the three basic needs of man food, clothing, and timber for housing. Besides, they supply fodder for our domestic animals, yield a great variety of articles of daily use viz., fuel, oils, resins and drugs, rubber, wood-pulp for paper, and a host of other raw materials for our industries. The last world war created a great shortage of these articles especially food and many nations were faced with actual famine. Even in normal times, many people, especially in developing countries, exist more or less constantly on the verge of starvation are undernourished. When we consider that the human population of the world in over on the increase, the problem of maintaining adequate supplies of food and other plant products for mankind becomes a real and permanent one. It was the recognition of this problem that was responsible for the setting up of a special Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) by the United Nations. Such problems are all the more acute in a thickly populated country like India.
The important place that agriculture occupies in our national development is evidence of the fact that our government is conscious of these problems. It is in the solution of such problems that plant physiology plays an important role. A proper understanding of the needs of the plants and of the various phenomena going on them and their significance and the application of such understanding in practice goes a long way to help us to control the life of the plants in such a way as to obtain from the products of improved quality and increased quality. 
                   The practice of tilling the soil and its irrigation in agriculture and the addition of farm manures and chemical fertilizers are instances of the unconscious application of the principles of plant physiology by the farmer. Many other instances of the application of these principles might be quoted; for instance, the schemes of land drainage and the use of chemicals in control of crop production. For some time now, dry farming has attracted the attention of agriculture scientists.

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