What is soil erosion?
We can simply define soil erosion as displacement of the upper layer of soil or if we lost upper layer soil then it is called soil erosion.
Causes of soil erosion:
There is various agent which cause soil erosion like wind, water and deforestation and etc
Some important factors which soil erosion are:
When wind storm happens in any area then it takes along topsoil with organic matter away with it and it cause soil erosion. That mostly happen if land is not proper covered with grass or any type of plant. This conditions mostly faced by desert areas because mostly wind storm or high winds occurs there and give loss to soil.
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You may be listen or read that water always make there own ways but it need some addition in that, You may also saw rain in hilly area but with that, soil get washed away to the plain and running water also deposits the organic rich soil in the riverbed. The deposition of soil change the courses of river and it cause floods and destruction of life and poverty.
You know that if topsoil vulnerable to wind and water. Then it causes soil erosion and it also happen due to overgrazing. If cattle are allowed graze repeatedly on the same field again and again then cattle’s eats all grass and available roots then it leads to soil erosion.
Trees play a very important role in human life. And now days we are cutting tree and building houses, industries and using for fire to make food and etc. It causing climate change and soil erosion. The roots of trees holding the soil together when the large area deforested. Then the top soil will be take away with the flow of winds and water.
Soil conservation mean to prevent from soil erosion or to control soil erosion, so soil erosion can be prevented by Afforestation, crop rotation, terrace farming, building dams and shelter belts.
As above said that plant is very important, if plant lives then human lives and if they die, we also die because it provides oxygen and planting trees very effective for conservation in hilly areas, and if trees cuts then it should be planted new trees at the same time.
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When harvesting a crop and planting new crop there time between harvesting and planting which time period farmland not have any crop and during this period farmer should grow grass or any other crop to conservation to soil from erosion.
Farming is done by cutting steps on the slopes of the hills in hilly areas. It helps to slows down the flow of water. And soil removed from one step is deposited on the next step. And the soil is never completely lost. This is terrace farming.
Building dams also prevent soil from erosion because dams are built to prevent floods. And floods wash the topsoil.
Farmer should cover of plant and trees around the field. And it break the speed of wind and protect the soil.